Department of Bio Energy

Objective:

  1. Promotion of eco-friendly fuels
  2. Promotion of planting biofuel seedlings on farmlands and open areas.
  3. Promotion of kitchen waste based home biogas units

Faculty:

         Sri. Manjunatha E.C., Assistant Director Bioenergy

Areas of research:

  • Bio-fuels
  • Biogas
  • Microbial Hydrogen Production

Consultancy:

  • Assessment of Bioenergy potential
  • Sourcing of biofuel plants

Subjects:

Bioenergy is a renewable energy made available of the materials derived from biological sources. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane and many other products from a variety of agricultural processes. Bio Energy in its most narrow sense it is a synonym to bio fuel, in its broader sence it includes biomass. Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas-also called "landfill gas" or "biogas". Crops, such as corn and sugar cane, can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats.
Bio fuel is mainly a liquid or gas derived from bio mass and used in transportation and other purpose. these agro fuels are considered an important means of reducing green house gas emissions and increasing energy security by providing a viable alternative to fossil fuels. Bio fuels are considered carbon neutral because of their cyclic nature. Plants absorb carbon from the atmosphere as CO2. The Carbon Stored in plants is converted into bio fuels when burned for energy, the CO2 is released once again in to the atmosphere for plants to capture and cycle to be repeated.

 
Bio Fuels are categorized to different types:-

First Generation Biofuels are produced directly from food crops. The biofuel is ultimately derived from the starch, sugar, animal fats, and vegetable oil that these crops provide. It is important to note that the structure of the biofuel iteself does not change between generations, but rather the source from which the fuel is derived changes. Corn, wheat, and sugar can are the most commonly used first generation biofuel feed stock.

Second Generation Biofuels are also known as advanced biofuels. What separates them from first generation biofuels that fact that feedstock used in producing second generation biofuels are generally not food crops. The only time the food crops can act as second generation biofuels is if they have already fulfilled their food purpose. For instance, waste vegetable oil is a second generation biofuels because it has already been used and is no longer fit for human consumption.

 
Common Second Generation Feedstock
  • Oil seed Crops : Seed crops are useful in the production of biodiesel.
  • Waste Vegetable Oil (W V O) : W V O have been used as a fuel for more than a century. In fact, some of the earliest diesel engines ran exclusively on vegetable oil.
  • Municipal Solid Waste : This refers to things like landfill gas, human waste, and grass and yard clippings. All of these sources of energy are, in many cases, simply being allowed to go to waste.
The term Third Generation Biofuel has only recently enter the mainstream it refers to biofuel derived from algae. Previously, algae were lumped in with second generation biofuels. However, when it became apparent that algae are capable of much higher yields with lower resource inputs than other feedstock, many suggested that they be moved to their own category. As it is  demonstrated, that algae provide a number of advantages, but at least one major shortcoming that has prevented them from becoming a runaway success. The list of fuels that can be derived from algae includes:
  • Biodiesel
  • Butanol
  • Gasoline
  • Methane
  • Ethanol
  • Vegetable OilJet Fuel

NATIONAL BIO FUEL POLICY 2009 - Salient Features:
  • An indicative target of 20% blending of biofuels both for biodiesel and bioethanol by 2017
  • Biodiesel production from non-edible oilseeds on waste, degraded and marginal lands to be encouraged
  • A Minimum Support Price (MSP) to be announced for farmers producing non-edible oilseeds used to produce biodiesel
  • Financial incentives for new and second generation biofuels, including a National Biofuel Fund
  • Biodiesel and bioethanol are likely to be brought under the ambit of “declared goods” by the
  • Government to ensure the unrestricted movement of biofuels within and outside the states.
  • Setting up a National Biofuel Coordination Committee under the Prime Minister for a broader policy perspective
  • Setting up a Biofuel Steering Committee under the Cabinet Secretary to oversee policy implementation.
  • Several ministries are currently involved in the promotion, development and policy making for the biofuel sector.
  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is the overall policymaker, promoting thedevelopment of biofuels and research and technology  development for its production.
  • The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is responsible for marketing   biofuels and developing and implementing a pricing and procurement policy.
  • The Ministry of Agriculture’s role is that of promoting research and development for the  production of biofuel feedstock crops.
  • The Ministry of Rural Development is specially tasked to promote Jatropha plantations on wastelands.
  • The Ministry of Science & Technology supports research in biofuel crops, specifically in the area of biotechnology.
  • In view of the multiple departments and agencies involved, a National Biofuel Coordination Committee (NBCC) headed by the Prime Minister was set up to provide high-level coordination and policy guidance/review on different aspects of biofuel development, promotion and utilization.
 
Bio Diesel Plant

bio-gasThe institute aims at the production of Bio diesel from Honge, jetropa and other sources of Non edible oils. Creating biodiesel from waste or pressed vegetable oils involves a process called transesterification. This process was used in the mid-1800s in the U.S. for making glycerin soap and the esters (biodiesel) produced were considered a byproduct. Transesterification basically involves the reaction of the oil with sodium hydroxide and alcohol (methanol) to remove glycerin. The glycerin sinks to the bottom and the biodiesel floats to the top. Removing the glycerin from the oil makes the original oil thinner so that it can be used in a diesel engine.

Machines used for oil production:
       Mechanical Expellars : 24 to 26.5%
       Village Crushers : 18 to 22 %

Transesterification Unit:
bio-gas

 
First Bio Fuel Bunk In the Country- Madenur, Hassan
bio-gas
 
COST ECONOMICS OF BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION FROM Pongamia Pinnata SEEDS:
Oil Extraction - 25% of Seed Weight
 
Oil Extraction - 25% of Seed Weight
Sl. No.
Particulars
Kg
Cost/Kg
Amount
Sl. No.
Particulars
Kg
Cost/Kg
Amount
1) Seed Procurement 100 Kg
Rs.22/- / Kg
Rs.2200/-
  1) Oil Produced -25 lt 25 ltr.
Rs.45/- / ltr.
Rs.1125/-
2) Other Production cost, labour, electricity, fuel, etc.  
Rs.5/- / Kg of Seed
Rs.500/-
  2) Oil Cakes-65% 65 Kg
Rs.10/- / Kg
Rs.650/-
Total
Rs.2700/-
 
Total
Rs.1775/-

Bio Diesel Production from Oil - 81%
   
Sl. No. Particulars Kg. Cost/Kg
Amount
1) Pongamia Oil - 25 ltrs. 25 ltrs.
Rs.45/- / ltr.
Rs.1125/-
 
2) Methanol –Industrial 2.5 ltrs.
Rs.46/- / ltr.
Rs.115/-
 
3) KOH-Commercial 250 gm
Rs.60/- / Kg
Rs.15/-
 
4) Production Cost- Rs.6/-/ Ltr of oil 25 ltrs.
Rs.6/- / ltr.
Rs.150/-
 
Total
Rs.1405/-
 
Diesel Production Cost- Price of Oil Cake =1405.00-650.00=755.00
Diesel Quantity-20 Ltr.
Unit Cost of Diesel Production Rs.37.75/- / ltr.   Excluding Oil Cake unit Cost is Rs.70.25/- / ltr.
 
Biogas

Bio-gas Plant (KVIC Model 2 Cu. Mtr. Size floating drum type):
bio-gas Cooking gas can be obtained by a bio-gas plant. Cow dung mixed with water (50:50) is fed to a bio-gas plant to get cooking gas (Methane). One cubic meter of bio-gas can be obtained from 25kg of cow dung (2 to 3 cattle’s) which is sufficient to cook food for 3 to 4 persons.


Other advantages of Bio-gas plant:

  • It is used for lighting & motive power.
  • Bio-gas slurry is very good organic manure. Annually 4 tons of organic manure can be obtained by 1 Cu. Mtr. from bio-gas plant.
  • No smoke in kitchen. Health of women is protected.
  • No need of fire wood. Trees are saved.
  • Good alternative energy. Saves fossil fuels.

Bio-gas Plant (Deenabandu Model 1 Cu. Mtr. size fixed doom):
Cooking gas can be obtained by a biogas plant. Cow dung mixed with water (50:50) is fed to a bio-gas plant to get cooking gas (Methane). One cubic meter of biogas can be obtained from 25 kg of cow dung (2 to 3 cattle's) which is sufficient to cook food for 3 to 4 persons.

 
Bio-gas compact unit running on Kitchen Waste:
This Appropriate Rural Technologies Institute (ARTI), Pune, model bio gas unit can be fed with 1.5 to 2 Kg of kitchen waste mixed with 10-15 litres of water every day to generate methane gas to burn the stove for about 2 hours to cook for a family of four members.
 
Vermi Compost - Worms eat my garbage
 
Eudrilus eugeniae

Vermi compost is the simple process of composting using earthworms to create a worm casts as fertilizer (heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable, garden green residues, food waste, bedding materials).


The institute owns a unit where in the removed weeds and the Dry debris from the Garden   are collected and put in stone built tank. The moisture concentration and the temperature  in the unit was maintained keeping in view of worms health. Having provided with the right environment, the worms will go to work to digest the kitchen scraps and bedding faster than any other compost method.  The material will pass through the worms' bodies and become "castings."

BIO FUEL IN NEWS